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How to Install Virtuoso Open Source (VOS) on Debian GNU/Linux

Starting Point

  1. We start from a freshly installed Debian/Squeeze (currently stable release) installation.
  2. For convenience, install and configure sudo and openssh-server, if you didn't already install these at package-selection time.
  3. Update the index of available packages:

    sudo apt-get update

Installing Virtuoso

Debian carries pre-built binary packages of Virtuoso; you have the option of installing Virtuoso using these, or if a newer version is available upstream or you want to specify your own configuration options, you can build from source directly.

Installing Virtuoso with Debian Packages

  1. Debian have split Virtuoso into a handful of packages so you can install only the bits you require; further, the packages cater for both minimal installations and as a database in its own right:

    tim@debian:~$ apt-cache search '^virtuoso' virtuoso-opensource - high-performance database virtuoso-server - high-performance database - server dependency package virtuoso-minimal - high-performance database - core dependency package virtuoso-opensource-6.1-bin - high-performance database - binaries virtuoso-opensource-6.1-common - high-performance database - common files virtuoso-opensource-6.1 - high-performance database - support files virtuoso-vsp-startpage - high-performance database - web interface files virtuoso-vad-bpel - high-performance database - BPEL module virtuoso-vad-conductor - high-performance database - conductor module virtuoso-vad-demo - high-performance database - demo module virtuoso-vad-doc - high-performance database - documentation module virtuoso-vad-isparql - high-performance database - iSPARQL module virtuoso-vad-ods - high-performance database - Open Data Spaces module virtuoso-vad-cartridges - high-performance database - Cartridges module virtuoso-vad-sparqldemo - high-performance database - SPARQL demo module virtuoso-vad-syncml - high-performance database - SyncML module virtuoso-vad-tutorial - high-performance database - tutorial module

    (The above output has been manually reordered into logical groupings.)
  2. and additionally,

    libvirtodbc0 - high-performance database - ODBC libraries libvirtuoso5.5-cil - high-performance database - Mono assemblies

  3. Proceed to install the umbrella `virtuoso-opensource' package, which brings in all dependencies:

    tim@debian:~$ sudo aptitude install virtuoso-opensource [sudo] password for tim: The following NEW packages will be installed: dbus{a} fontconfig-config{a} ghostscript{a} gsfonts{a} libavahi-client3{a} libavahi-common-data{a} libavahi-common3{a} libcups2{a} libcupsimage2{a} libdbus-1-3{a} libfontconfig1{a} libglib2.0-0{a} libglib2.0-data{a} libgs8{a} libjasper1{a} libjbig2dec0{a} libjpeg62{a} liblcms1{a} liblqr-1-0{a} libltdl7{a} libmagickcore3{a} libmagickwand3{a} libpaper-utils{a} libpaper1{a} libpng12-0{a} libreadline5{a} libtiff4{a} libvirtodbc0{a} libwbxml2-0{a} odbcinst{a} odbcinst1debian2{a} shared-mime-info{a} ttf-dejavu-core{a} virtuoso-opensource virtuoso-opensource-6.1{a} virtuoso-opensource-6.1-bin{a} virtuoso-opensource-6.1-common{a} virtuoso-server{a} virtuoso-vad-conductor{a} virtuoso-vsp-startpage{a} 0 packages upgraded, 40 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded. Need to get 25.6 MB of archives. After unpacking 69.5 MB will be used. Do you want to continue? [Y/n/?]

  4. As part of the installation, Debian will ask you for passwords to use for the dba (main database administrative) and dav (WebDAV filesystem administrative) users; if you leave it blank, the virtuoso service will not start after installation:





    Setting up libvirtodbc0 (6.1.2+dfsg1-1) ... Setting up virtuoso-opensource-6.1 (6.1.2+dfsg1-1) ... Starting Virtuoso OpenSource Edition 6.1 : virtuoso-opensource-6.1. Setting up virtuoso-opensource (6.1.2+dfsg1-1) ... Setting up virtuoso-server (6.1.2+dfsg1-1) ... Setting up virtuoso-vad-conductor (6.1.2+dfsg1-1) ... Setting up virtuoso-vsp-startpage (6.1.2+dfsg1-1) ... tim@debian:~$

  5. At this point Virtuoso is installed and an instance created and running.

Package Contents and Layout

  1. Debian's packaging involves renaming the isql binary to avoid a conflict with unixODBC, so the executables provided (in the virtuoso-opensource-6.1-bin package) are:
    • /usr/bin/isql-vt
      • commandline database-access tool isql*
    • /usr/bin/isqlw-vt
      • unicode isql
    • /usr/bin/virt_mail
      • SMTP delivery agent for incoming mail
    • /usr/bin/virtuoso-t
      • Main daemon executable
  2. In accordance with Debian policy that services should start immediately after they've been installed, it creates a default instance based on a configuration file located at /etc/virtuoso-opensource-6.1/virtuoso.ini; the database itself lives in /var/lib/virtuoso-opensource-6.1/db/ (a similar layout to MySQL, PostgreSQL, etc.).
  3. At this stage you can move on to using Virtuoso through the Conductor web-interface and isql command-line utility, below.

Further VAD Packages

  1. Debian have separated-out some of the Virtuoso VAD packages into separate packages of their own. When you install these, all you get is the VAD package on disk ready to be installed via the conductor; Debian does not install the VAD into any running instance for you (because by this time you might have created your own instances elsewhere on different ports).

    tim@debian:~$ sudo apt-get install virtuoso-vad-{isparql,ods,cartridges,tutorial} Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done The following NEW packages will be installed: virtuoso-vad-isparql virtuoso-vad-ods virtuoso-vad-cartridges virtuoso-vad-tutorial 0 upgraded, 4 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded. Need to get 13.7 MB of archives. [...] Unpacking virtuoso-vad-tutorial (from .../virtuoso-vad-tutorial_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb) ... Setting up virtuoso-vad-isparql (6.1.2+dfsg1-1) ... Setting up virtuoso-vad-ods (6.1.2+dfsg1-1) ... Setting up virtuoso-vad-cartridges (6.1.2+dfsg1-1) ... Setting up virtuoso-vad-tutorial (6.1.2+dfsg1-1) ... tim@debian:~$

  2. In the conductor (http://localhost:8890/conductor/), go to SysAdmin / Packages and the iSPARQL, Cartridges and Tutorial and ODS (of which there are several) packages will now be available.

Building Virtuoso from Source

There are 2 ways to build Virtuoso from source: using Debian packges or the generic source build that works everywhere.

Rebuilding using Debian packages

  1. First we install the minimum Debian build environment - basic C compilers and development headers.

    tim@debian:~/C$ sudo aptitude install dpkg-dev build-essential [sudo] password for tim: The following NEW packages will be installed: build-essential bzip2{a} dpkg-dev g++{a} g++-4.4{a} libalgorithm-diff-perl{a} libalgorithm-diff-xs-perl{a} libalgorithm-merge-perl{a} libdpkg-perl{a} libstdc++6-4.4-dev{a} libtimedate-perl{a} 0 packages upgraded, 11 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded. ...

  2. Then we download the Debian source packages:

    tim@debian:~$ mkdir C tim@debian:~$ cd C tim@debian:~/C$ apt-get source virtuoso-opensource Reading package lists... Done Building dependency tree Reading state information... Done NOTICE: 'virtuoso-opensource' packaging is maintained in the 'Git' version control system at: git://scm.alioth.debian.org/git/pkg-virtuoso/pkg-virtuoso.git Need to get 69.4 MB of source archives. Get:1 http://ftp.uk.debian.org/debian/ squeeze/main virtuoso-opensource 6.1.2+dfsg1-1 (dsc) [3,260 B] dfsg1-1.dsc dpkg-source: info: extracting virtuoso-opensource in virtuoso-opensource-6.1.2+dfsg1 dpkg-source: info: unpacking virtuoso-opensource_6.1.2+dfsg1.orig.tar.gz dpkg-source: info: applying virtuoso-opensource_6.1.2+dfsg1-1.diff.gz

  3. Install the build-dependencies: because Debian build Virtuoso with all bells and whistles enabled (language hosting modules in particular), this brings in quite a lot more packages:

    tim@debian:~/C/virtuoso-opensource-6.1.2+dfsg1$ sudo aptitude build-dep virtuoso-opensource The following NEW packages will be installed: autoconf automake autopoint{a} autotools-dev binfmt-support{a} bison cdbs ... update-alternatives: using /usr/bin/sn to provide /usr/bin/cli-sn (strong-name-tool) in auto mode. Setting up cli-common-dev (0.7.1) ...

  4. Start the package build using dpkg-buildpackage:

    tim@debian:~/C/virtuoso-opensource-6.1.2+dfsg1$ dpkg-buildpackage -rfakeroot dpkg-buildpackage: export CFLAGS from dpkg-buildflags (origin: vendor): -g -O2 dpkg-buildpackage: export CPPFLAGS from dpkg-buildflags (origin: vendor): dpkg-buildpackage: export CXXFLAGS from dpkg-buildflags (origin: vendor): -g -O2 dpkg-buildpackage: export FFLAGS from dpkg-buildflags (origin: vendor): -g -O2 ... dpkg-deb: building package `libvirtuoso5.5-cil' in `../libvirtuoso5.5-cil_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_i386.deb'. dpkg-genchanges >../virtuoso-opensource_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_i386.changes dpkg-genchanges: including full source code in upload dpkg-source --after-build virtuoso-opensource-6.1.2+dfsg1 dpkg-buildpackage: full upload (original source is included) tim@debian:~/C/virtuoso-opensource-6.1.2+dfsg1$

  5. Some time later the build will finish and you can see a lot of *.deb files created in the parent directory:

    tim@debian:~/C$ ls libvirtodbc0_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_i386.deb libvirtuoso5.5-cil_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_i386.deb virtuoso-minimal_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb virtuoso-opensource-6.1.2+dfsg1 virtuoso-opensource_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb virtuoso-opensource_6.1.2+dfsg1-1.diff.gz virtuoso-opensource_6.1.2+dfsg1-1.dsc virtuoso-opensource_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_i386.changes virtuoso-opensource_6.1.2+dfsg1.orig.tar.gz virtuoso-opensource-6.1_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_i386.deb virtuoso-opensource-6.1-bin_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_i386.deb virtuoso-opensource-6.1-common_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_i386.deb virtuoso-server_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb virtuoso-vad-bpel_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb virtuoso-vad-conductor_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb virtuoso-vad-demo_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb virtuoso-vad-doc_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb virtuoso-vad-isparql_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb virtuoso-vad-ods_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb virtuoso-vad-cartridges_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb virtuoso-vad-sparqldemo_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb virtuoso-vad-syncml_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb virtuoso-vad-tutorial_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb virtuoso-vsp-startpage_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb tim@debian:~/C$ sudo dpkg -i *deb (Reading database ... 53725 files and directories currently installed.) Preparing to replace libvirtodbc0 6.1.2+dfsg1-1 (using libvirtodbc0_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_i386.deb) ... Virtuoso has been deleted (if it existed at all) because its usage count became zero Unpacking replacement libvirtodbc0 ... Selecting previously deselected package libvirtuoso5.5-cil. Unpacking libvirtuoso5.5-cil (from libvirtuoso5.5-cil_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_i386.deb) ... Selecting previously deselected package virtuoso-minimal. Unpacking virtuoso-minimal (from virtuoso-minimal_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb) ... Preparing to replace virtuoso-opensource 6.1.2+dfsg1-1 (using virtuoso-opensource_6.1.2+dfsg1-1_all.deb) ...

Building from Upstream Source

Note: Useful prior reading: please see the pages VOSBuild and VOSMake in the VOS Wiki.

Dependencies

Proceed to install the required build dependencies:

tim@debian:~$ sudo aptitude install dpkg-dev build-essential autoconf automake \
		libtool flex bison gperf gawk m4 make odbcinst libxml2-dev libssl-dev \
		libreadline-dev
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  autoconf automake autotools-dev{a} bison build-essential bzip2{a} 
...
Unpacking

Download the latest VOS archive (source tarball such as virtuoso-opensource-6.1.3.tar.gz) from GitHub and unpack it:

tim@debian:~/C$ tar xvpfz virtuoso-opensource-6.1.3.tar.gz 
virtuoso-opensource-6.1.3/
virtuoso-opensource-6.1.3/bin/
virtuoso-opensource-6.1.3/bin/installer/
virtuoso-opensource-6.1.3/bin/installer/virtuoso.ini
virtuoso-opensource-6.1.3/bin/installer/demo.ini
...
Configuring
  1. For the purposes of this demonstration, we use a simple configuration with no frills:

    tim@debian:~/C$ cd virtuoso-opensource-6.1.3/ tim@debian:~/C/virtuoso-opensource-6.1.3$ ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/ \ > --with-readline --program-transform-name="s/isql/isql-v/" checking for a BSD-compatible install... /usr/bin/install -c checking whether build environment is sane... yes checking for a thread-safe mkdir -p... /bin/mkdir -p checking for gawk... gawk ...

  2. There are many other options that can be specified at this stage, to enable/disable the building of language-hosting plugins (Perl, Python, Ruby) or various VAD packages (sub-packages within Virtuoso); for more on these, read the relevant README files in the source distribution and run `./configure --help'.
  3. Here we settle for asking for readline support, ie the ability to cursor-up/down and use typical readline key-combinations in the commandline isql tool once built.
Aside: VOS component locations
  1. Virtuoso instances usually take the form of a designated directory somewhere in the filesystem, centred around a configuration file (nominally virtuoso.ini) which specifies operational parameters such as the filenames of database page-files to use, port-numbers to use, numbers of threads and buffers, etc.
  2. In the above command, we specify a prefix of /usr/local to Virtuoso's ./configure script. This forms a base directory under which Virtuoso will create/use the following structure:
    • /usr/local/lib/
      • various libraries for sesame,jdbc,jena,hibernate, and hosting
    • /usr/local/bin
      • where the main executables (virtuoso-t, isql) live
    • /usr/local/share/virtuoso/vad
      • used to store VAD archives prior to installation in an instance
    • /usr/local/share/virtuoso/doc
      • local offline documentation
    • /usr/local/var/lib/virtuoso/db
      • the default location for a virtuoso instance
    • /usr/local/var/lib/virtuoso/vsp
      • various VSP scripts - the default homepage before the Conductor is installed </verbatim>
  3. Other directory-structures are possible by specifying variously:
    • individual configure options such as --bindir, --libdir, etc.
    • --with-layout={GNU|Debian|Gentoo|RedHat|FreeBSD|opt|OpenLink}
      where each layout specifies a set of locations where the VADs, documentation (HTML and PDF), demo and default instance databases, and hosting libraries will be installed, each compatible with the packaging requirements of the named OS distribution ("opt" means a prefix of /opt and OpenLink is the default, detailed above).
Aside: Debian isql name conflict

Unfortunately, both unixODBC and Virtuoso provide a command `isql', used to access data-sources from the commandline (in unixODBC, an ODBC DSN; in Virtuoso, the SQL interface).

In order to allow both packages to coexist, Debian rename Virtuoso's isql command to isql-vt.

Given that we are installing Virtuoso from source to a different prefix (/usr/local), it is not absolutely necessary to do the same here, but to avoid having to specify different PATH considerations and make life easier, the configure command above reflects this as well.

Building and Installing
  1. Having chosen some configure options, run make:

    tim@debian:~/C/virtuoso-opensource-6.1.3$ nice make Making all in . make[1]: Entering directory `/home/tim/C/virtuoso-opensource-6.1.3' make[1]: Nothing to be done for `all-am'. make[1]: Leaving directory `/home/tim/C/virtuoso-opensource-6.1.3' Making all in docsrc ...

  2. Optionally, you can run `make check' to run the test-suite (beware, it takes some hours and multiple gigabytes of disk-space).

    tim@debian:~/C/virtuoso-opensource-6.1.3$ nice make check

  3. Install it to the directory-structure chosen above:

    tim@debian:~/C/virtuoso-opensource-6.1.3$ sudo make install

Getting Started

  1. Take a copy of the default virtuoso.ini and store it safely in case of making erroneous changes.
  2. Change into the default database directory:

    tim@debian:~/C/virtuoso-opensource-6.1.3$ cd /usr/local/var/lib/virtuoso/db/ tim@debian:/usr/local/var/lib/virtuoso/db$ ls virtuoso.ini

    • (At this point, if you wish to run virtuoso as a non-root user you should change the ownership on this directory, e.g. sudo chown -R tim . . Virtuoso only requires root if you wish to use it as a webserver listening on port 80; by default it listens only on high ports.)
  3. Start the server:

    tim@debian:/usr/local/var/lib/virtuoso/db$ virtuoso-t -df Thu Apr 28 2011 15:20:13 INFO: { Loading plugin 1: Type `plain', file `wikiv' in `/usr/local/lib/virtuoso/hosting' 15:20:13 INFO: WikiV version 0.6 from OpenLink Software 15:20:13 INFO: Support functions for WikiV collaboration tool 15:20:13 INFO: SUCCESS plugin 1: loaded from /usr/local/lib/virtuoso/hosting/wikiv.so } ... 15:20:23 INFO: Checkpoint started 15:20:23 INFO: Checkpoint finished, log reused 15:20:23 INFO: HTTP/WebDAV server online at 8890 15:20:23 INFO: Server online at 1111 (pid 23912)

    • Here we see the server running in foreground mode with maximum debugging information. Because it's the first time this instance has been run, virtuoso has created a bunch of database files (virtuoso.db, virtuoso.trx (the transaction log), etc) and installed the Conductor VAD package into the database.
  • If you close your terminal while this command is running, Virtuoso will stop. To run it as a daemon instead, omit the "-df" options. You can still see most of what's happening by running tail -f virtuoso.log.

Using Virtuoso

Web-based UI

You can access the Conductor menu by pointing your web-browser at http://localhost:8890/conductor/ (substitute hostname as appropriate).

From the Conductor you can manage users and automated backups, install VAD packages, execute SQL commands in a web-based iSQL tool, configure the RDF Sponger and loads more.

There are two system users of immediate importance: dba (the relational data administrative account) and dav (the WebDAV adminstrative account). By default both these accounts have their passwords set the same as the respective usernames; it is highly advised that you change these as soon as possible for security reasons.

Command-line

Virtuoso provides a SQL/ODBC listener on port 1111/tcp. You can connect directly to this and execute SQL statements using the isql (isql-v) tool:

tim@debian:~$ isql-v
OpenLink Interactive SQL (Virtuoso), version 0.9849b.
Type HELP; for help and EXIT; to exit.
SQL> tables;
Connected to OpenLink Virtuoso
Driver: 06.01.3127 OpenLink Virtuoso ODBC Driver
Showing SQLTables of tables like 'NULL.NULL.NULL', tabletype/colname like 'NULL'
TABLE_QUALIFIER  TABLE_OWNER      TABLE_NAME       TABLE_TYPE       REMARKS
VARCHAR          VARCHAR          VARCHAR          VARCHAR          VARCHAR
_______________________________________________________________________________

DB               DBA              ADMIN_SESSION    SYSTEM TABLE     NULL
DB               DBA              ADM_OPT_ARRAY_TO_RS_PVIEW  SYSTEM TABLE     NULL

Resource Usage

Virtuoso is highly configurable: the same executables and packages will service anything from a small "lite-mode" installation with a database of 10Mb up to a huge multi-user enterprise installation with terabytes of data.

The defaults with Virtuoso Open-Source give a 160MB process size in memory, about 29MB database and total 237MB footprint on disk; this has 20 threads running for database and/or web-server use.

The wiki document VOSScale describes how to scale Virtuoso in some detail.

Related

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